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  • Insufficiently developed institutional capacities of R&D and out-dated and inadequate equipment at R&D institutions – as the consequence of war devastation and long absence of investments in scientific and education sector, domestic institutions came into the situation that they cannot be competitive in the European market. There is a very small number of research facilities, and worse, they are equipped with outdated equipment without capacities for more serious research projects for the future. Most of the laboratory equipment is very basic and only basic and ideal cases can be resolved with such equipment.
  • There are no clearly defined stimulating or supporting measures for small and medium enterprises dealing with medical equipment – within the frame of initial analysis done for Republic of Srpska, it is obvious that available RTD programmes, strategies, initiatives and policies treated insufficiently SMEs that have an RTD component, and especially SMEs that are focused on biomedical research and MI.  
  • Insufficient participation of social partners in the decision making process (such as professional associations, trade unions, patient groups, etc.). During the process of creation of key documents and public consultations at regional level, participation and presence of external partners is insufficient and without requested exchange of experience between relevant stakeholders and social partners. 
  • SMEs dealing with the MI issue are mainly distributors of main MI equipment producers. They are providing equipment and services for the maintenance of sold equipment. However, there are no domestic companies producing MI equipment.
  • Low level of industrial R&D capacities in SMEs, while in the MI sector in RS there is no such R&D company.
  • Frequently the best students staying at university are not going to companies and this is usually reason for “brain drain” due to various factors influencing the future of graduated students (low salaries in industry, inadequate possibilities for advancing in positions, uncertainty of market position for companies etc). The cooperation between companies and universities (partnership with universities and other HE institutions) and research centres is very limited and there are almost no examples in the practice of different joint cooperation (research or commercial projects, joint venture, PPP, etc) between industry and university centres.
  • Insufficient level of science and research leadership and management, as well as unsatisfactory level of science entrepreneurship, expressed in a marginal percentage share in a non-budgetary source of financing.
  • Inadequate involvement of young researchers and experts in big R&D projects – this is the problem that was not only a weak point in the RTD sector, but in the whole system of higher education in RS. Unfortunately, if one does superficial analysis of most of R&D projects, inadequate involvement of young research staff can be observed.
  • No international validation of research results and evaluation of projects based on international experience – one of biggest weakness is lack of validation of achieved research results at the international level. Domestic researchers are not having opportunities to participate and to be active at international congresses and symposia and to publish papers in referent European and World magazines.
  • No access to relevant international magazines and databases – domestic scientists do not have access to relevant European and World magazines, as well as to relevant databases.
  • No partnerships with networks/cluster partners – at present no medical clusters in RS.
    Lack of foreign investments in MI field – except some rare cases of bilateral agreements and some donations, there were no significant foreign investments in can be observed MI field in RS.
  • Administrative procedures complex for start-up companies – the time needed to establish a company is estimated at 15-30 days, declared to be too long and needs to be improved.
  • Lack of trade policy – at the moment this field is not completely regulated.
  • Low utilization level of available EU programs for RTD - low number of project applications, although there are significant funds given as entry fees to FP7, EUREKA and COST.
  • Low level of knowledge and expertise for participation in international projects and programmes – it is very common that a researcher is at the same time administrative staff in international programmes and projects, which is unfavourable for researchers to participate in the projects. They are more willing to do research part of the project, especially experienced researchers, and there are supporting systems that could facilitate logistical and administrative issues in project realization such as project planning, implementation and reporting.
  • Low level of research activities in commercialization - There are not enough research projects that involve commercial business. The projects end up with patents, new technology etc., but there is no final step – the commercialization of research activities.

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